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However, the floral images they see are hidden in mottled stains much the way the image of Jesus is hidden in a tortilla or the image of Mary is hidden in the bark of a tree.
The first to see flowers in the stains was a psychiatrist, who was probably an expert at seeing personality traits in inkblots (Nickell, 1994)Danin notes that another relic believed to be the burial face cloth of Jesus (the Sudarium of Oviedo in Spain) contains the same two types of pollen grains as the Shroud and also is stained with type AB blood.
For his work, Mc Crone was awarded the American Chemical Society's Award in Analytical Chemistry in 2000.
The shroud, however, has many defenders who believe they have demonstrated that the cloth is not a forgery, dates from the time of Jesus, is of miraculous origin, etc. Forensic tests on the red stuff have identified it as red ocher and vermilion tempera paint.
Skeptics believe that the shroud of Turin is just another religious relic invented to beef up the pilgrimage business or impress infidels.A weight of 20th century carbon equaling nearly two times the weight of the Shroud carbon itself would be required to change a 1st century date to the 14th century (see It may interest skeptics to know that many people of faith believe that there is scientific evidence which supports their belief in the shroud's authenticity.Of course, the evidence is limited almost exclusively to pointing out facts that would be true the shroud were authentic.Since the Sudarium is believed to have existed before the 8th century, according to Danin, there is "clear evidence that the shroud originated before the eighth century." The cloth is believed to have been in a chest of relics from at least the time of the Moorish invasion of Spain.It is said to have been in the chest when it was opened in 1075.
(Another equally famous painting, also claimed to have miraculously appeared on a cloth, cropped up in Mexico in the 16th century, "Our Lady of Guadalupe.") The case for the forged shroud is made most forcefully by Joe Nickell in his Inquest On The Shroud Of Turin, which was written in collaboration with a panel of scientific and technical experts.