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Wind energy development contributes substantially to achieve climate protection goals.
Consolidating the state of research provides the groundwork for the identification of mitigation measures and advanced planning approaches.We have reviewed contributions of recent international conferences such as the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife impacts (CWW 2011, Trondheim, Norway), the Conference on Wind Power and Environmental Impacts (CWE 2013, Stockholm, Sweden), the biennial Wind Wildlife Research Meetings (by the NWCC, U. BE Conference (2013 in Brussels, Belgium), and the Stu Kplus Conference 2013 (Berlin, Germany), along with available publications that evolved from them.We used further references to cover additional studies.At the same time, wind energy development can generate effects on wildlife, raising concern about affected species (e.g., Bailey et al. Numerous surveys have been carried out within this field of research, with a focus on bats, birds, marine mammals, fish, and benthos, to understand the mechanisms behind these effects and to use this knowledge for the development of mitigation measures and planning tools.Hence, it is essential to showcase what we have learnt so far and which uncertainties remain to allow for a sensitive wind energy development and to focus future research on shortcomings so far.
Beyond wildlife impacts, it is also essential to assess possible effects wind farm development may have on scenery and human health (e.g., Knopper and Ollson This review presents a qualitative analysis of international research in the field of wind energy and wildlife interactions on- and offshore.