Localcam4 Chat random sxs lade
By contrast, cool biases are detected in the southern and northern subtropical Atlantic Ocean.In the southeast Atlantic, the simulated ABFZ is located too far south at 24°S (the observed ABFZ is around 15–17°S), reflecting the large warm bias.In this study, we discuss the ABFZ SST bias in the Norwegian Earth System Model, Nor ESM (Bentsen et al. Nor ESM and, CESM1 share the atmosphere (Community Atmosphere Model version 4.0, CAM4), land (Community Land Model, CLM4), sea ice (Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, CICE4) and coupler components.This study uses the original CAM4 without interactive aerosol representation.In fact, the seasonal march of the ITCZ and convective rainfall over the equatorial Atlantic is related closely to the development of the ACT in JJA.There is also an interaction of the West African Monsoonal related surface wind and the ACT is discussed by several previous works (e.g., Okumura and Xie ).Contour interval of the meridional SST gradient is 0.2 °C/°.SST meridional gradient in Nor ESM is not a bias from observation, but its exact value.
MICOM is configured on a tri-polar horizontal grid with approximately uniform spacing of 2.0° in longitude and a variable spacing in latitude between 2.0° in mid-latitude and 1/2°at the equator (and about 1.0° around the ABFZ); in the vertical it comprises a stack of 51 isopycnic layers with two additional layers to represent the bulk mixed layer on top.
Turbulent surface heat flux differences between coupled and uncoupled experiments explain the remaining 2 °C warm SST bias in Nor ESM.
Ocean circulation, upwelling and turbulent heat flux errors all modulate the intensity and the seasonality of the ABFZ errors.).
The equatorial warm SST bias is most intense in boreal summer (JJA, not shown) during the West Africa Monsoon season.
The timing is consistent with previous studies (e.g., Richter ), Nor ESM has a large warm SST bias in the eastern tropical Atlantic that reaches 4 °C at the equator and 8 °C off the southwestern African coast.
The south-eastern Atlantic including the ABFZ is one of regions with frequent low-level stratiform cloud formation (e.g., Klein and Hartmann ).